Yesterday and Today – RIP #UvaldeTX

14 students & 1 teacher killed at #Uvalde TX – RIP

Prayers & #GunReformNow

Oh I know this isn’t shocking us anymore and our tears have dried up. BUT when we think of each mother and father who won’t have a child coming home tonight, just for a second when we think of their grief then we know in our hearts, this isn’t about politics or our rights alone. We want guns that keep us safe inside our homes. Our children are not sitting inside homes. They are in schools, colleges, shopping malls, theaters – but we love guns too much.

Sharing my poem —-

Yesterday and Today…… a #poem

Yesterday, you’d come home from school and my world would be brighter
Today it seems, my world will always remain darker…..

Yesterday, I chided you for playing video games full of violence, torture
Today violence of my world stole your dreams forever….

Yesterday, your focus was college of your reach, you aimed higher
Today, you became a pawn in someone’s unwinnable war

Yesterday your biggest worry was a B score
Today trivial seems that fear

Yesterday, we prayed that you’d drive safer
Today, your blood streaked body drowns under my one long tear

Yesterday, with scarcely a hug you walked away with your peer  
Today, I won’t accept. I need yesterday and you. Right here

Yesterday, prom nights and college letters got your cheer
Today, your cheers are drowned under my long silent tear

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Jobs – May, 2022

R&D Engineer w/ Analytical Instrumentation, Systems Integration Exp – Sunnyvale, CA

There are several exciting opportunities for product development research associate/ technician/ engineers in developing, testing, optimizing and troubleshooting aspects related to novel diagnostics technology platform & to work with novel detection systems, complex fluidic systems and assay optimization on prototypes and automated systems. The compensation will be competitive and includes stock with a huge potential as well as competitive benefits package. Company is found by a veteran leader and focuses on development and commercialization of biochip-based detection platforms for ultra-high sensitivity diagnostics & bioanalytical applications. This role requires working with a multidisciplinary team of engineers, scientists and manufacturing personnel. Part of the activities might be conducted in a BSL2 laboratory area and could involve the handling of human patient fluid samples. Other activities might be conducted in a CER (controlled environment) setting.


Testing, development and optimization of functional biochips, fluidic cartridges & analytical instruments; Support document prep; Use Good Documentation Practices (GDP) while authoring Experimental summaries, DOPs, SOPs, batch records (BRs) and forms (FRs) for various unit operations; Process development & optimization related to biomolecular sensing; Support all aspects of technology transfer to & from development partners; Develop, test & execute QC procedures; Process troubleshooting to determine root cause & find possible engineering solutions.

Requirements: MS in bio-, mechanical-, electrical- or chemical engineering, chem or biochem, or related; 5+ years hands-on R&D, engineering or product development and project/ people management experience. Experience in developing custom equipment by collaborating with external vendors or internal engineering resources; hands-on experience in mechanical design and in building & operating electronic systems; Proficiency in CAD design; Experience w/ statistical analysis software as well as with instrument-oriented programming language(s) (e.g. Python; LabView); Experience with standard biotech laboratory and/or manufacturing equipment & working with biological or biochemical systems (e.g. proteins, nucleic-acids, cells and/or bio-organic molecules); Experienced using diverse analytical instruments e.g. oscilloscopes, DAQ interfaces; Experienced in cGMPs & in authoring DOPs, BRs, FRs; Experience in V&V of instruments and processes; and Knowledge of data analysis methods.

Optics & Photonics Research Scientist/ Engineer w/ microfluidics/ lab-on-a-chip Exp – Sunnyvale CA

This is an exciting opening for interdisciplinary research scientist/ engineer with experience in photonics, material science and/or biological applications product development to work in multi-disciplinary team, in developing, testing, optimizing and troubleshooting aspects related to novel diagnostics technology platform & to work with novel detection systems, complex fluidic systems and assay optimization on prototypes and automated systems. The compensation will be competitive and includes stock with a huge potential as well as a competitive benefits package. Company is founded by a veteran leader & focuses on development & commercialization of biochip-based detection platforms for ultra-high sensitivity diagnostics & bioanalytical applications. Part of the activities might be conducted in a BSL2 laboratory area and could involve the handling of human patient fluid samples. Other activities might be conducted in a CER (controlled environment) setting.

Responsibilities: Support optofluidic platform technology development, & development of single-molecule detection technology with novel reagents & fluidic cartridges, as well as instrumentation for detection, sample preparation & corresponding software; Support diverse aspects related to mid-stage development of a bio-chip based, optofluidic diagnostics platform; Apply diverse knowledge of design principles, practices & implementation in complex systems & assignments; Design, optimize, test, & support validation of optofluidic chips, optical/fluidic interfaces, sample processing technology & instruments, in collaboration with other groups & external suppliers; Develop, evolve & maintain custom optoelectronic systems used for testing and characterizing optofluidic systems; Analyze & present data including images, time traces, assay flows, optical spectrums; Conduct statistical analysis & build/implement/test models for stochastic, high-volume data; Support all aspects of technology transfer to and from internal and external partners; Interface with internal resources and external vendors to design, test & validate equipment.

Requirements: BS/ MS in bio-, mechanical-, electrical- or chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, biochemistry, or related plus 1-5 years hands-on R&D or engineering experience; Extensive theoretical and hands-on experience in optics/photonics; Experience bridging the fields of photonics/optical engineering, microfluidics/lab-on-a-chip & statistics; Exp in design of optical systems (free space & chip based) & in using simulation software eg. ray tracing software for system design & FEM/FDM/BPM etc for chip design: Proficiency in statistical analysis (e.g. Python, JMP, Matlab, etc.) as well as instrument-oriented programming language(s) (e.g. Python; LabView); Experience in using diverse, analytical instruments such as oscilloscopes, DAQ interfaces, UV-VIS spectrometers, scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), fluorescence microscopes, etc. Expertise in optofluidics, Hands on ability to work-with/manipulate/couple optical fiber and respective components, Proficiency with digital/analogue signals & systems; Experience simulating in Multiphysics environments (e.g. Comsol, Lumerical) and Circuit design and simulation experience are all HUGE PLUSES.


Software Engineer  w/ experience building products in multi-disciplinary envt – Santa Clara, CA

This is an exciting opening software engineer with experience software & hardware development to design, develop & implement a growing suite of bioanalytical solutions comprised of integrated biochips, proprietary reagents & custom instrumentation. The company is founded by a veteran leader and is developing single molecule detection technology, and is focusing on development & commercialization of biochip-based detection platforms for ultra-high sensitivity diagnostics & bioanalytical applications. 

Responsibilities: Lead / Support Software, Firmware & UI development aspects related to the development of novel, diagnostic instrument platforms; Develop control/analysis software for RUO (Research Use Only) & FDA regulated instrumentation; Develop / Contribute to a custom user interface for scientific & medical diagnostic systems; Support all aspects of technology transfer to & from internal & external partners; and work with a multidisciplinary team of experts.

Requirements: B.S. with 3+ years of relevant experience (Level I), B.S./M.S. with 7+ years of relevant experience. (Level III). Requirements also include, Significant experience with instrument-related software engineering using C#; Experience with Python programming; Exp w/ industry coding best practices (Git management, unit testing, documentation, etc; Experience developing, implementing, consuming & supporting contracted APIs. Also preferred: Experience with interface standards (e.g. GraphQL, OpenAPI, etc.); Experience with firmware level interaction (e.g. C). Experience with delivering quality conformant software (e.g. SaMD); Experience with complex data analysis challenges; Ability to develop custom equipment with external vendors and/or internal engineering resources.


Senior Manufacturing Engineer – S. San Jose, CA

Bay Area start-up focusing on improving healthcare delivery through state-of-the-art catheter development has an immediate opening for senior manufacturing enginee, to support the development and production of innovative catheters ensuring high reliability, regulatory adherence, and cost-effective manufacturability.

Requirements: Minimum 10 years history of experience in medical device manufacturing environment; Proficiency in Solidworks; Experience writing protocols & test reports; Experience using inspection and test equipment (vision systems, tensile testing) are required.

Responsibilities: Support manufacturing activities; Spend time on the manufacturing line with the assemblers to improve processes & increase quality; Develop assembly & test fixturing; Create, validate & document new manufacturing processes; Write protocols & test reports; Prepare manufacturing lines for significant scale up; Conduct process verification & validation activities; Initiate failure analysis in manufacturing; Design, write & perform equipment qualifications & process validations; Facilitate transitioning development products to full scale production line; Collaborate with existing suppliers & bring up new ones with an eye towards partnership & efficiency. 

Associate Director/Director Validation – SJ  /QUALITY – QA TEAM

There is an immediate opportunity for Director of Validation in San Jose, CA in a pharmaceutical company with novel drug delivery technology. The company recently had an IPO event and the stock has held very well and the technology holds promise to be a game changing improvement in the quality of care for many patients. The company has a world class team in place. Director of Validation is a hands-on role responsible for the execution of validation activities: To develop & implement harmonized validation processes & practices; Develop a qualified team; Manage validation/qualification of equipment, facilities, utilities, cleaning, sterilization, automated systems, and computer system validation in a cGMP environment. 

Skills & Experiences: 

Responsibilities: Ensure development & implementation of validation strategies & internal SOPs; Write & review qualification & validation documents; Lead & support qualification & validation of cGMP equipment, facilities, utility systems, cleaning & manufacturing processes; Develop & maintain risk based, quality driven procedures & practices; Lead risk assessment activities; Identify, hire & develop, manage & support company’s validation expertise; Support change control program with respect to facility, utilities, equipment, cleaning & computerized systems validation changes; Evaluate validation impact of manufacturing process changes & equipment upgrades; Complete activities related to regulatory filings, production schedules and/or customer needs with respect to facilities, utilities, equipment, computer system validation, etc.; Ensure Quality meets or improves on budget, cost & efficiency targets (KPI’s) in line with business objectives; Support QA activities related to the assigned projects, including, but not limited to: internal and external audits, deviations, change control and CAPAs; Other duties/activities may be necessary to support departmental or company goals. 

Skills & Experience: BS in life science or engineering; 10+ validation exp in bio/pharma industry; 5+ years of supervisory/managerial experience; Knowledge Good Engineering Practices, FDA Quality System Regulations, ISO Standards (ISO 13485 and ISO 14971) & validation such as GAMP 5, 21 CFR Part 11, and ASTM E2500; Knowledge of international & domestic cGMP regulations for pharmaceutical manufacturing; Technical writing, problem solving & analytical skills; Ability to review, analyze, summarize & interpret data, draw conclusions & make decisions/ recommendations; and Experience in project management. 

Quality Assurance – S. SJ

There is an immediate QA position available for support & performance of QA/QS functions/activities and adherence to applicable regulatory standards for medical devices. This is a vascular company founded by a seasoned entrepreneur whose previous company had $1B+ exit. This opportunity will offer competitive salary plus stock with huge potential.

Skills & Experience Required: BS in Science related area; 10+ yrs experience in FDA regulated industry; Exp with Quality Assurance practices & systems; Knowledge of ISO 13485 and FDA 21 CFR 820; MasterControl administration/process ownership; Maintain compliance of a certified QMS related to configuration control, document control, and change control. ASQ Certifications are a plus.

Responsibilities: Support devet & maintenance of QMS, ensuring alignment of corporate operations applicable regulations; Serve as system administrator for MasterControl Electronic Document Management and Training System (EDMS), including responsibility for configuration, user training, account management, training course creation and assignment & assessment of upgrades & patches. Maintain validated state of system throughout system lifecycle. Manage, process & track controlled documents from the Document Change Order (DCO) process until document approval or retirement, including updating related controlled documents; Revise controlled documents as appropriate & ensure timely reviews. Manage electronic approval of records/documents via DocuSign; Monitor & track completion of quality system records including CAPA, Deviation, and NCMR; Monitor training compliance & report any issues to management; Maintain Approved Supplier List (ASL) and ensure supplier files are current; Perform raw data review in support of technical reports and regulatory filings & Issue, track, and perform quarterly audits of laboratory notebooks. Assess corporate operations against quality system regulations, issue identification/ resolution including proper and timely documentation; Prepare quality metrics & reports; Facilitate & conduct internal & external audits; Perform history record review & disposition of device batches. Review/approve facility records as needed (pest control reports, cleaning logs, and environmental monitoring reports & Manage archival of hard-copy records.

Senior Manager CMC, Analytical Development – North San Jose, CA

There is an exciting job opportunity in San Jose, CA, to work on novel projects involving drug-device combinations for treating chronic diseases & participate in method and tech transfer from R&D to Manufacturing as appropriate. This is an exciting opportunity in a rapidly growing company to work with a world class team, on game changing technology with HUGE potential.

Requirements include: BS/MS in sciences PLUS 5+ years relevant bio/pharma experience; biologics analytical development exp in biophysical techniques & analytical characterization of peptides & proteins; solid oral dosage and/or parenteral sustained release formulation exp, exp in process development from early to late phase development; experience of working in GLP/GMP regulated environment, drug-device combination exp; knowledge analytical techniques such as various HPLC modes & detections, LC-MS, CE-SDS, peptide mapping, ELISA, cell-based assays, etc, for product characterization, comparability testing and PK/PD analyses; Exp in method validation and specification setting; Assessing chemical & physical stability of formulations, identifying stability, manufacturability, & performance critical quality attributes. Experience in protein purification & biologic formulation is a plus.

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Our universe may be about to transform – With Metavarse, NFT, Cryto, Web3

While many of us are still trying to wrap our heads around the new terms that have multiplied in the last few years like blockchain, data, IOT, artificial intelligence, and machine learning, our lexicon is about to expand much more significantly. With words that are rapidly gaining significance like Web 3, Metaverse, NFT and crypto, it is not just our lexicon that is changing but a huge transformation is looming on the horizon that can well impact every aspect of our lives. We can safely assume that in the coming couple of years, we could be laying some new foundations transforming how we buy, sell, trade and conduct every aspect of our business.

At TiEcon 2022, an entire track dedicated to Web 3, Crypto, and NFTs is guaranteed to give us fascinating insights into the industry in which Venture Capital has invested over $50B in 2021. 

The track at TiEcon will begin with fireside chat with Randi Zuckerberg, former director of market development and spokesperson for Facebook and as of 2014, founder and CEO of Zuckerberg Media. She is also editor-in-chief of Dot Complicated, a digital lifestyle website, and creator of Dot, an animated television show about a young girl who uses technology to enhance her education experiences as well as her recreational activities. At its simplest, Dot is an entertaining guide to understanding how technology and social media influences and informs our lives online and off. At its more complex level, we need to understand metaverse and NFTs. Broadly speaking, Metaverse is a graphically rich virtual space where people can work, play, shop and socialize and can interact through NFTs or non fungible tokens. Non-fungible meaning unique and can’t be replaced with something else. For instance, while bitcoin is fungible and one can be replaced with another, NFT is non fungible – kind of like a unique trading card. That is as much sense as I can make. Besides, I am not about to give my readers a headache. We will leave it to zuckerberg to demystify it further.

In another fireside chat, Sandeep Nailwal, co-founder of Polygon will talk about “building a Web 3 decacorn”. Web 3 is an idea for a new iteration of World Wide Web based on blockchain technology. Arguments have been made in favor of Web 3 that it will provide increased data security, scalability and privacy. And on the other side, concerns have been raised about possible increase in proliferation of harmful content, in an environment of low moderation. Polygon tagline says, it’s for everyone who wants to contribute to a decentralized future! Let us hope he helps us further in coming up to speed on what may be a fast approaching future.

After attending Harvard and Stanford, serving in finance roles at the Federal Reserve and Goldman, managing P&Ls at two consumer startups, and founding two startups of her own, Mercedes Bent joined LIghtspeed Venture firm in 2019 and now scouts funds and invests in early stage companies that are “unlocking wealth creation for underserved individuals and regions through crypto, fintech, career mobility, or the creator economy”. She will share her insights as a track keynote.

Exciting panel with Lorien Gabel, co-founder and CEO of Figment, Shiva Rajaraman, VP of product at Open Sea, Raghu Yarlagadda, co-founder & CEO of FalconX and moderator Rashmi Gopinath, General Partner at B Capital Group will talk about the next era of Web 3. It sounds like the future of the future that we will get to learn about.  

“Gaming and the next billion Web 3 users” is the topic of another fireside chat where Justin Kan, co-founder of Fractal (formerly co-founded and sold Twitch) will share his insights on how Web 3 is poised to transform the gaming ecosystem.

Lastly, a panel will discuss funding and founding Web3 Startups. Moderated by Asha Jadeja, founder of Motwani Jadeja Foundation, the panelists Avichal Garg, Co-founder of Electric Capital, and Elena Nadolinski, founder/ CEO of Iron Fish will share insights, and discuss opportunities and challenges and tools one may need to navigate this fast-evolving decentralized world.

Register ASAP for #TiEcon2022 at and avail of the opportunity to listen to the entire conference virtually on zoom.

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Sustainability & Profitability can co-exist with Entrepreneurial Creativity

Wendell Berry had said, “the earth is what we all have in common” and sustainability isn’t a debate anymore, it isn’t a choice either; increasingly, acting on it with urgency is an imperative. On this #EarthDay2022, it needs to be mentioned that if we act on it with urgency then that the future of our planet may look green in more ways than one. Sustainability is emerging as a big business opportunity, attracting hundreds of billions of dollars in startup and investment capital and in 2022, growth is likely to accelerate.   

The topic of climate crisis will be tackled head on at #TiEcon2022, the largest virtual #entrepreneurship conference to take place in May, 2022. Register ASAP to avail of free registration for the entire exciting conference. Opening keynote for sustainability track will be given by Dr. Ali Nouri. Dr. Nouri leads the Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs as an Assistant Secretary in the U.S. Department of Energy. Following the previous climate crisis denying President, Nouri as part of Biden-Harris administration, will lead the charge on tackling the climate crisis and helping shape policies towards building a clean energy future. It will be exciting to hear his thoughts and to know what we can anticipate in terms of new climate policies.

After working as Climate Editor at Tech Crunch, Johnathan Shieber has joined FootPrint Coalition as chief editor and venture partner. In fireside chat, we hope to hear from him many creative ideas on the planet’s various challenges, including getting microplastics out of the ocean, reducing pollution and more. FootPrint Coalition backs a wide array of projects to promote the development and adoption of technologies and services aimed at solving some of these kinds of most pressing problems. With both its non-profit initiatives and for-profit arm, FootPrint seeks to change the trajectory of our society through creative storytelling. As companies are discovering that sustainable change towards the planet’s sustainability must consider the economy, society, and the environment, we will be required to think outside the box and tackle the challenges with creativity and resourcefulness and I can’t wait to hear his thoughts. 

Chief Product Officer at Turntide Technologies, Brad Surak will share his thoughts on how creative use of technology can not only help sustainability and do good for the world but can also help decrease the company’s carbon footprint and operating costs and can open up new revenue opportunities. 

Sustainability track’s closing keynote will be by Dr. Jennifer Holmgren, CEO of revolutionary carbon recycling company LanzaTech. The company’s process converts carbon waste from industrial smokestacks, agriculture and landfills into ethanol that is used by its partners to make a slew of products from packaging to perfume to dresses. Over its dozen years, LanzaTech has grown into a carbon recycling powerhouse and with its recent announcement to go public, the company is valued at around $2.2 billion.

Don’t miss this exciting track. Register at @TiEcon for #TiEcon2022 virtual conference. Some free registrations are available, thanks to the sponsors.

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Data Readiness in Healthcare to Unlock AI Potential

What Is Data Readiness? In simple language, it consists of all the tasks required to ensure that artificial intelligence (AI) platforms learn from reliable and relevant data sources.

What is the state of data readiness in healthcare?  According to a recent report, lack of data readiness is preventing healthcare leaders from driving rapid, effective, measurable and sustainable transformation and this impedes their ability to execute. 

Over 90 percent of healthcare executives mention prepping for data readiness as their top priority. A vast majority of them are planning to invest in technologies designed to improve data readiness and support systemic interoperability. According to the report, in addition to financial issues and staffing capacity crunch, interoperability is another issue that is blocking innovation. Interoperability is key for a seamless transition achievable through unlocking the full potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare. 

As in financial, auto and other industries, AI is expected to have a huge impact on health care delivery, access and on financial and clinical outcomes in health. Healthcare as an industry transitions to newer systems at a much slower pace. Tendency is to pour money into older technologies that tend to create more data silos, as remarked by Abhinav Shashank, co-founder & CEO of Innovaccer.  

The crisis is so acute and the promise of closing the data readiness gap to realize the full potential of digital transformation is so immense that it is imperative to act on it. 

An exciting panel at @TiEcon2022 moderated by Chris Waugh, Chief Innovation Officer at Sutter Health with panelists Prat Vemana, Chief Digital Officer at Kaiser Permanente and Abhinav Shashank, Founder & CEO at Innovaccer will address the challenges and opportunities of data readiness in healthcare and the promise it holds in enhancing industry collaboration to improve outcomes and reducing costs. 
Register ASAT at to avail of early bird incentives.

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Science making the impossible, possible!! Albert Bourla – grand keynote at #TiEcon2022

I am eagerly looking forward to the opportunity to hear Dr. Albert Bourla give a grand keynote on Day 2 at #TiEcon2022 in May at Santa Clara, CA.

As Chairman and CEO, since 2019, Dr. Bourla has led Pfizer through one of its greatest challenges when the world was looking to scientists and pharmaceutical companies for answers to the sudden calamity represented by covid.  In a rare mode of cooperation and unprecedented speed, scientists began furiously working for a vaccine. However, their work was also proceeding against a backdrop of political drama that was unfolding in the USA. 

Very likely scientists and leaders of pharmaceutical companies had no interest in maneuvering the political minefield and yet it became unavoidable when Mr. Trump predicted a breakthrough vaccine  before Election Day. News of Pfizer’s success however, only arrived right AFTER the election was called for Joseph Biden. The story of Pfizer and its research partner, the German firm BioNTech, both of who declined the money from the federal effort, “Operation Warp Speed” and Moderna who accepted the money from the Government that was led by science denying President Mr. Trump, unfolded against the backdrop of politics, science, and incredible high stakes for humankind. The resulting accomplishments by these companies and others are as fascinating as they are impressive. Bourla was awarded the 2022 Genesis Prize for his leadership in the development of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid 19 vaccine.

During his 25+ years at Pfizer, Bourla has emphasized his commitment to help ensure equitable healthcare access to medicines and patients. However, Bourla also opposes government interference in pharmaceutical pricing, which he has argued would hamper spending on development of new drugs.  As per a recent RAND Corporation report, US prescription drug prices are higher than in most other countries. The Biden Administration released a plan to decrease prescription drug costs covered by the Medicare program, and later dropped the initiatives, after objections from some key Democrats. Bourla has observed that drug prices are in fact going down and more importantly, drug prices are only a small portion of the overall US healthcare spending.

It will be fascinating to hear Mr. Bourla speak on these and other health and healthcare related issues at TieCon2022. During covid challenges, when many prayed as never before for the lives of their loved ones, world also realized that besides the divine, our next best hope for better life rests in the hands of #science.

Register ASAP for the #TiEcon2022 conference at @TiEcon to access early bird incentives.

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Armon Dadgar, CTO – HashiCorp: Enabling Innovation

Grand keynote: Armon Dadgar, CTO- HashiCorp – Enabling Innovation

Preparations are in full swing for #TiEcon2022 at Santa Clara, CA in May, 2022. Among an exciting lineup of speakers and panels at this largest entrepreneurship focused conference will be Armon Dadgar,  CTO & co-founder of HashiCorp giving a grand keynote on day 1.

HashiCorp is one of the fastest growing tech companies in the cloud and DevOps space. With its open source tools, Hashicorp supports the development and deployment of large scale service oriented software installations and enables companies to deliver applications faster. Each tool focuses on specific stages in the life cycle of a software application, with a goal towards automation.

With a range of products like Terraform, HashiCorp Vault, HashiCorp Nomad, and HashiCorp Consu, it has truly emerged as a company that enables innovation. Highly respected by the developer community, Hashicorp is a prominent open-source promoter and is also a leader in all remote working practice.

Armon Dadgar says, as CTO at Hashicorp, he combined his passion for security and distributed systems and their applications to solve real world problems, through the world of DevOps tooling. In early childhood, when children were still leaving cookies for Santa, Armon begged his parents to get him a coding book for Christmas. His parents also gave him a box set of .NET kit and he used it to build games like Tetris and Tic-Tac-Toe. 

The secret of Dadgar’s success seems to be in the way in which he puts himself in the shoes of the user community. Speaking of the transition from writing code to managing people, Dadgar says, “making the shift from IC-land to manager land was a tough one”, but it helped to internalize that “I can only be so effective with just two hands at a keyboard. But if I can train 10, 20 other people to think the way I do, or to apply the same design principles, then it’s like I have 20 hands at the keyboard”. 

Initially, Dadgar says he felt he knew the system better than anyone else, that he would think about edge cases, he could be the code reviewer, but at some point, he realized it wasn’t practical. Then a new realization set in that after all software is malleable, it can be fixed, it’s not set in stone. That seems to be a key leadership skill that is constantly called for when one leads and manages people. 

Register for TiEcon2022 at @TiEcon at .

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નાટો શું છે, શા માટે જરૂરી સંસ્થા બની રહી છે – NATO in #Gujarati

મેં ભારતમાં થોડા લોકો સાથે વાત કરી અને એવું લાગ્યું કે તેઓ યુક્રેન પર રશિયાના આક્રમણ માટે નાટોના વિસ્તરણને દોષી ઠેરવે છે. નાટોના વિસ્તરણને દોષિત ઠેરવતા પહેલા નાટો વિષે માહિતી જાણવી અગત્યની છે. 

ઉત્તર એટલાન્ટિક ટ્રીટી ઓર્ગેનાઈઝેશન (NATO) ની રચના, બીજા વિશ્વ યુદ્ધ પછી થયેલ. અને મારા મત અનુસાર સમગ્ર માનવતા માટે એક વિશિષ્ટ ઘટના બની. અલબત્ત તેને લીધે અમુક રાષ્ટ્રો માટે ફાયદા અને બીજા માટે ગેરફાયદા હોય શકે પરંતુ સમગ્ર માનવતા માટે, ઘાતક બીજા વિશ્વયુદ્ધ પછી મૂળ 12 સભ્યો સાથે શરુ થઇને હવે 30 સુધી વિસ્તૃત થનાર નાટો, માનવતા માટે સૌથી વધુ ફાયદાકારક પરિણામ છે.  શા માટે?

નાટોમાં જોડાતા સભ્યો શપથ લે છે કે “કોઈપણ એક સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્ર સામેના હુમલાને બધા સામે હુમલો માનવામાં આવે છે” અને બધા સભ્યો “એકમેકના સંરક્ષણ માટે પ્રતિજ્ઞાબદ્ધ છે”. તેવા સામુહિક સરંક્ષણને લીધે સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્રોને પોતાના સ્વરક્ષણ માટે શસ્ત્રો એકઠા કરવા પડતા નથી. અને માનવતા માટે ઓછી સંખ્યામાં શસ્ત્રો અને ખાસ કરીને પરમાણુકૃત શસ્ત્રો દુનિયામાં રહે તેનાથી વિશેષ કોઈ વિશેષ ઘટના નથી. અને છતાં પર્યાવરણ માટે આપણે તેવું કોઈ જબ્બરજસ્ત સામુહિક કામ કરી શકીશું તો તે ફરી એક વિશેષ ઘટના બની રહેશે. તેથી શસ્ત્રોને બનાવવા, ખરીદવા, તેને સુરક્ષિત રાખવા, જૂના થઇ જાય ત્યારે તેમનું સમારકામ કરવું, જુના શસ્ત્રોને તોડીને નવા વસાવવા, આમ શસ્ત્રોની જાળવણી, સંગ્રહ, સમારકામ વગેરેમાંથી સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્રોને રાહત મળે છે. સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્રો આ રીતે શસ્ત્રો અને દારૂગોળાના ભંડારને ઘટાડી શકે છે, તેથી તેમના સંસાધનો શિક્ષણ જેવા વધુ માનવીય હેતુઓ માટે વાપરી શકાય છે. જો સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્રોએ નાટોની છત્રછાયા હેઠળ, રાહતની લાગણી અનુભવી ન હોત તો તે રાષ્ટ્રો તેઓ પરમાણુ શસ્ત્રો ઉત્પન્ન કરવામાં લાગેલ હોત. ઘણા વિદ્ધાનો માને છે કે જો નાટો ન હોત તો યુરોપ સંપૂર્ણ રીતે પરમાણુકૃત બની ગયું હોત. તેથી નાટો વિશ્વમાં પરમાણુ શસ્ત્રોના વધુ નિર્માણ માટે અવરોધક બની રહ્યું છે.

નાટોના સભ્યોનો ઉદ્દેશ કટોકટી દરમિયાન એકસાથે ઊભા રહેવાનો અને કોઈપણ અને તમામ બાહ્ય જોખમોથી સ્વતંત્રતા અને લોકશાહીનું રક્ષણ કરવાનો છે. 2001 દરમિયાન જ્યારે અમેરિકા ઉપર આતંકવાદીઓએ હુમલો કર્યો ત્યારે નાટોના સભ્યો આ સંધિને કારણે અમેરિકન સરકારની પડખે ઉભા હતા. એ જ રીતે 1990 ના દાયકામાં બોસ્નિયા અને કોસોવોમાં ત્યાં થઈ રહેલા સંઘર્ષોને રોકવા માટે, નાટોના દળો ત્યાં ગયા અને અફઘાનિસ્તાનમાં આતંકવાદી સંગઠનોને પગપેસારો કરતા અટકાવવા સાથે મળીને કામ કર્યું. નાટોના સભ્યો એ જ રીતે સાયબર ધમકીઓનો સામનો કરવા માટે સાથે મળીને કામ કરી રહ્યા છે અને હોર્ન ઑફ આફ્રિકાની આસપાસ ચાંચિયાગીરી થાય છે તેનો સાથે મળીને સામનો કરી રહ્યા છે. તે રીતે નાટો માત્ર લડાઇ સંબંધિત મુદ્દાઓ જ નહિ પરંતુ રેફયુજીસ ની મદદ, સાયબર ધમકીઓ, આતંકવાદીઓ ઉપર નજર રાખવામાં અને તેવા અન્ય વૈશ્વિક જોખમો સામે સાથે મળીને કામ કરે છે.

જો કોઈને આશ્ચર્ય થાય કે શા માટે આપણને એક સંસ્થાની જરૂર છે અને વિશ્વ શા માટે એકસાથે મળીને કેમ ન કરી શકે તો તે વાજબી પ્રશ્ન છે. નાટો હેઠળ સહકારનું નેટવર્ક એક માળખા હેઠળ તૈયાર હોય છે. સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્રને મદદ કરવા માટે, ક્ષણભરની સૂચના સાથે કાર્ય હાથ ધરી શકે છે, પછી તે યુદ્ધનો ખતરો હોય કે સાયબર ખતરો. આ માળખું હોવાને લીધે તુરંત જ એકત્રીકરણ અને પ્રતિસાદ આપવા માટે લોજિસ્ટિક્સ, સંકલન અને ખર્ચની વહેંચણીની ખાતરી સભ્યોને હોય છે. યુરોપિયન એટલાન્ટિક ક્ષેત્રમાં કોઈપણ દેશ નાટોમાં જોડાઈ શકે છે. સભ્ય રાષ્ટ્ર તેના જીડીપીના 2% પૈસા સામુહિક સંરક્ષણ માટે ફાળે તેવી અપેક્ષા છે. અને ક્યારેક તે તકરારનો મુદ્દો પણ બને છે કે દરેક રાષ્ટ્ર તેમના વાજબી હિસ્સાનું યોગદાન આપતા નથી અને અમેરિકા નાટો માટે મોટા ભાગનું યોગદાન આપે છે. ક્યારેક અમેરિકા નાટોના સભ્યો સમક્ષ તેમના ભાગનું યોગદાન આપવા માટે ફરિયાદ પણ કરે છે.  ટ્રમ્પના પ્રમુખપદ દરમિયાન આ મુદ્દો ચર્ચામાં આવ્યો હતો જ્યારે તેણે નાટોને તોડી પાડવાની ધમકી આપી હતી. જો કે, અન્ય પ્રમુખોએ સમયાંતરે અવલોકન કર્યું છે કે નાટો એક ફાયદાકારક સંસ્થા છે. ક્યારેક અન્ય કેટલાક રાષ્ટ્રો તેમના જીડીપીના 2% કરતા પણ ઓછો ફાળો આપે છે કારણકે તેઓ સમૃદ્ધ નથી અને તેમની પાસે પુરા સંસાધનો નથી. અને છતાં સામુહિક સરંક્ષને કારણે તેમને સમય આવ્યે મદદ મળવાની ખાતરી છે. 

હા, હું સ્વીકારું છું કે રશિયાના વડાપ્રધાન પુટિન માટે નાટોનું વિસ્તરણ ચિંતાનું કારણ હોય શકે. પરંતુ નાટોને અને પુટિન ના વગર કારણે કરેલા આક્રમણ ને સમાન માપદંડથી ન માપી શકાય અને એક સમાન દોષિત ન ઠરાવી શકાય. બંનેના મૂળભૂત રીતે અલગ રહેલા સ્વભાવને આપણે સમજવા જોઈએ. પુટિન એક ફાશીવાદી છે અને તેણે અવારનવાર ઉશ્કેરણી વગરના હુમલાઓ કર્યા છે અને લાખો લોકોને માર્યા છે; અગાઉ જ્યોર્જિયા અને ક્રિમીઆમાં અને હવે યુક્રેનમાં. તે અરાજકતા દ્વારા વિકાસ કરવા અને યુ.એસ.એસ.આર.ના મોટા ભાગને શક્ય તેટલી વિશાળ સ્થિતિમાં પુનઃસ્થાપિત કરવા ઈચ્છે છે. પરંતુ નાટો એક એવી સંસ્થા છે જે સજીવ રીતે વધે છે અને વિશ્વમાં શસ્ત્રો અને ખાસ કરીને પરમાણુ શસ્ત્રો અસંખ્ય રીતે ન વધે અને છતાં રાષ્ટ્રોને સામુહિક સંરક્ષણ મળી રહે તે ઉપર ધ્યાન કેન્દ્રિત કરે છે. 

આ બધું જાણ્યા પછી હવે તમે નાટોને આ ફાશીવાદી પુટિન જેટલા દોષિત માનશો?


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Blame NATO if you must, but not before you understand what NATO is.

I talked with a few people from India and they have been blaming NATO expansion for Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Fine blame NATO expansion if you must. BUT at least be informed about what NATO is. Now, there is a lot of information on what is NATO. But for my readers I am going to go ahead and share some information here.

Formation of The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), an intergovernmental military alliance formed after the Second World War, was in my opinion, one of the best things to happen for humanity as a whole. Sure there are pros and cons for individual nations but for humanity as whole, it is the most beneficial outcome, after a deadly war. It began with 12 original members and now it is expanded to 30. 

Members who join NATO take an oath that states “An attack against any one member nation is considered an attack against all” and that is “all for one defense pledge.”. Therefore member nations are freed from accumulating defense war chests and weapons which get outdated, need to be maintained, stored, serviced and replaced from time to time. Since member nations can lessen the stockpile of weapons and ammunition, their resources can be saved for more humane purposes like education, there would be fewer stockpiles of ammunition in the world and fewer outdated weapons to dispose of, thus reducing waste. What is even more pertinent is that if member nations did not feel a sense of relief, being under the protection, under the NATO umbrella then those nations that could afford would be more likely to produce nuclear weapons, to stop external attacks. Many believe that if it was not for NATO then most of Europe would be entirely nuclearized by now. So NATO acts as a deterrent to more buildup of nuclear weapons in the world.

The objective of NATO members is to stand together during crises and preserve and protect freedom and democracy from any and all external threats. When the USA was attacked by terrorists during 2001, NATO members stood by the American government because of this treaty. NATO forces similarly went into Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s to stop the conflicts happening there and worked together in Afghanistan to prevent terrorist organizations from gaining a foothold. NATO members are similarly working together to combat cyber threats and are working together to combat piracy, that happens around the Horn of Africa.  

So the issues that NATO addresses are not only combat related. NATO members have also worked together to address the refugee crisis and also works with migrants to help them with home placement, visa applications and more. Over 13,000 NATO troops worked to train local forces in keeping terrorism from gaining ground. NATO members work together against cyber warfare, piracy and other global threats. 

If anyone wonders why we need an organization in place and why can’t the world come together, as it often does, when a threat rises. That is a fair question. An existing network of cooperation under NATO happens under a clear command structure. That enables mobilization with moment’s notice to help a member nation, whether it is threat of war or massive cyber threat. An existing structure ensures logistics, coordination and cost sharing to mobilize and respond immediately.    

NATO is not an exclusionary organization. It originated in the north of the Atlantic. And yet, it has an open door policy to allow any country in the European Atlantic region to join and take an oath towards collective defense of threats to all member nations. Members are expected to contribute 2% of their GDP towards defense. It is true and a point of some minor contention that not every nation has contributed their fair share and the USA contributes a lion’s share towards NATO.

From time to time USA complains and asks other member states to contribute their fair share. This issue came to a head during the Presidency of Mr. Trump when he threatened to dismantle NATO. However, other Presidents have observed from time to time that NATO is a very beneficial organization. Often some of the other nations contribute less than 2 % of their GDP, simply because they are not rich and they do not have the resources.  Even with some member nations contributing lesser amounts, many believe that the US gains a lot of value due to strategic locations of some of these nations that may even supercede in some cases than the military capabilities that could be obtained by them spending more. 

Yes, I acknowledge that for Putin, the expansion of NATO causes consternation and concern. However, those who blame both in equal measure, must understand the fundamentally different nature of both. Putin is a fascist and has often undertaken unprovoked attacks and killed millions, previously in Georgia and Crimea and now in Ukraine. He wishes to grow through mayhem and restore as much of USSR to its giant status as possible, through autocracy.  NATO is an organization that grows organically and is focused on protecting the freedoms and democracies of member nations and to collectively fight against terrorism, pyracy, cyber attacks and more. 

If you still believe that it is justified and rational for Putin to counter NATO expansion by waging unprovoked attacks on its neighbors then you have a right to believe that. But at least now you know what values you are advocating.  Mr. Yeltsin, the President of Russia had once expressed an interest in joining NATO. So let us envision a day when Russians will tire of autocrats like Putin and will revolt and bring a system of democratic Government. Could it be conceivable then that Russia joins NATO? 

My final point is that existing organizations that support freedoms and democracies provide forums and platforms for ongoing discussions that encourage further actions towards these freedoms. In that respect, NATO provides a diplomatic forum and an avenue for communication to address concerns. It is a platform driven by value, not by mad, megalomania-driven, fascist desire for expansion and control of world’s land or resources.  Of course, even then members may veer away. However, members also feel the weight of collective pressure from other friendly nations to abide by the pledge to serve in favor of freedom and democracy.   

Unfortunately, since one NATO member, Turkey evolved into a full fledged autocracy instead of being a democratically elected government, NATO isn’t requiring current members to maintain their democratic status, with the belief that the world faces more than one type of enemy. In my opinio, this is the real danger that NATO may one day become defunct. But right now, it seems to be the best organization we have that serves humanity well in more ways than one.


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બુદ્ધિજીવી અને સંવેદનશીલ: Sense & Sensibility by Jane Austin – Review in #Gujarati

જેન ઓસ્ટીન નામની લેખિકાએ 18મી સદી ના ઇંગ્લેન્ડને લગતા ઘણા પુસ્તકો લખેલ છે. મોટા ભાગે તેના પુસ્તકો રોમેન્ટિક વિષયને લગતા પુસ્તકો છે. તાજેતરમાં તેણે લખેલ પુસ્તક સેન્સ એન્ડ સેન્સિબિલિટી ઉપર બનેલું નાટક જોયું તો તેના પુસ્તક ઉપર મારા વિચારો દર્શાવું છું. 

તે બે બહેનો ની વાર્તા છે. 18મી સદીના ઇંગ્લેન્ડ માં મિલકત માત્ર પુરુષ વરસદારોનેજ મળતી. જો કોઈ વ્યક્તિ ને દીકરો ન હોય તો તેના ગયા બાદ તેની મિલકત તેની પત્ની અથવા દીકરીની બદલે તેના નજીકના પુરુષ વારસદારને મળે. તેવી સ્થિતિમાં અચાનક સ્ત્રીઓ બેઘર બની જાય અને નાની યુવતીઓ યોગ્ય અને લાયક પાત્ર શોધવા લાગે. કેમકે તે સમાજ વ્યક્તિના વર્ગ, દરજ્જા અને ક્રમ ઉપર નિર્ભર હતો. આવી સ્થિતિ માં કોઈ યુવતીને તુરંત યોગ્ય પતિ ન મળે તો તેને ખુબ ગરીબીમાં, આજીવન કુંવારી અવસ્થામાં જિંદગી પસાર કરવી પડે તેવું પણ બને. 

સેન્સ એન્ડ સેન્સિબિલિટી એટલે કે બુદ્ધિમાન પ્રકૃતિ અને સંવેદનશીલ પ્રકૃતિ. આ વાર્તાના મુખ્ય પાત્રો બે બહેનો છે. પિતાના અવસાન પછી મેરિયન ડેશવુડ અને એલિનોર ડેશવૂડ ની જિંદગી અસ્તવ્યસ્ત થઇ ગઈ. બંને બહેનો અને તેમની માં રહેતા હતા તે ઘરમાં તેમના ભાઈ અને ભાભી રહેવા લાગ્યા અને તેમની ભાભીએ તેમના ભાઈને સમજાવ્યો કે બંને બહેનોને તેમના લાયક નાનું મકાન શોધી આપવું જોઈએ જેથી તેમને સામાન્ય સ્થિતિમાં રહેવાની આદત પડી જાય. તે સમયે ઇંગ્લેન્ડ માં આવી સ્થિતિ માં આવેલ સ્ત્રીઓને કોઈ સગાવહાલા પાસે નાનું મામૂલી કોટેજ હોય તો તેઓ તે બહેનો ને તેમાં રહેવાની વ્યવસ્થા કરી આપે. ડેશવૂડના કોઈ સગા એ તેવું મકાન રહેવા માટે ઓફર કર્યું અને તેમની ભાભીએ તેમના ભાઈને સમજાવ્યો કે તે તેની બહેનો અને માં ને તેમાં રહેવા જવા માટે સમજાવે. ભાઈના કહેવાથી તેઓ તેવા મામૂલી મકાન માં દૂર રહેવા ચાલ્યા ગયા. તેમના સગાઓ અને તેમની માં તેમના માટે યોગ્ય પતિ શોધવા લાગ્યા.

મેરિયન ડેશવુડ સંવેદનશીલ, લાગણીશીલ પ્રકૃતિ ધરાવે છે, તે સ્વયંસ્ફુરિત છે, પ્રેમ માં જેટલી ઝડપી છે તેટલીજ તેના વિલાપમાં ઉતાવળ છે; તેને ઋતુઓનું પરિવર્તન, પ્રકૃતિમાં આનંદ અને સૂકા વિખરાયેલા પાંદડાઓમાં કવિતા દેખાય છે; તે ખુબ રોમેન્ટિક પ્રકૃતિ ધરાવે છે, પૂરા દિલથી પ્રેમ કરે છે, નિખાલસતાથી ખળભળાટ હસે છે અને નાટકીય રીતે વારંવાર રડી પડે છે. મારુ માનવું છે કે તેના જેવી સ્ત્રીઓ ઘણીવાર સમાજમાં જરૂરી ફેરફારો પાછળનું બળ હોય છે. જ્યારે મિલકત તેના ભાઈને આપવામાં આવે છે, ત્યારે તે તુરંત તેની બહેનને પૂછે છે, “શા માટે? શું તે એક કર્તવ્યનિષ્ઠ પુત્ર છે તેથી કે તે લાયક છે એટલા માટે? જો કે તે બેમાંથી કંઈ નથી.”

મેરિયનની બહેન એલિનોર ડેશવુડ પોતાની લાગણીઓને વ્યક્ત કરવામાં ધીમી ગતિ ધરાવે છે અને વિચારશીલ છે, તેની ટિપ્પણીમાં પણ વિનય, વિવેક, નમ્રતા અને વિચારશીલતા છે, તે પોતાના વિચારોમાં સંયમિત છે; તે સરંજામ અને ઔચિત્યની વાત કરે છે; અને તે હંમેશા વસ્તુઓને અન્યના દ્રષ્ટિકોણથી જોવાનો પ્રયાસ કરે છે અને પોતાને તકલીફ વેઠવી પડે છતાં અન્યની સંવેદના નો ખ્યાલ રાખે છે. મારુ માનવું છે કે તેના જેવી સ્ત્રીઓ, ઘણી વખત સમાજમાં વ્યવસ્થા જાળવવામાં અને અરાજકતાને રોકવામાં નિમિત્ત બને છે. માત્ર પોતાની લાગણીશીલતા ઉપર સંયમ અને ધીરજ જાળવીને જ નહિ પરંતુ અન્ય વ્યક્તિઓને પણ તે સલાહ આપે છે અને જીવનમાં આવતા વંટોળને શાંતિ અને સંયમથી સામનો કરતા શીખવે છે. આ વાર્તામાં મેરિયન તેની માનો આધાર બની જાય છે. લાગણીશીલતા ઉપર કાબુ જાળવવાનું તે તેની બહેન મેરિયનને પણ સમજાવે છે. મેરિયન એક વાર કહે છે, “મારી બહેન આશા રાખે છે કે તે મને મારા પોતાના અતિરેકથી બચાવે”.

મેરિયન વિલોબી નામના યુવાનના પ્રેમમાં પડે છે. વિલોબી પણ તેના જેવોજ સંવેદનશીલ યુવાન છે અને થોડાજ સમયમાં તેઓ સાનભાન ભૂલી ને પ્રેમમાં બંધાઈને એક બીજા પ્રત્યે વચનબદ્ધ થઇ જાય છે. પરંતુ થોડા સમય બાદ વિલોબી અચાનક પલાયન થઇ જાય છે. તે સમયે ઇંગ્લેન્ડ માં જો કોઈ યુવતી કોઈ પ્રેમી જોડે વચનબદ્ધ હોય અને પ્રેમી તેને છોડી ને ચાલ્યો જાય તો ઘણીવાર બીજા કોઈજ યુવાન તેની જોડે લગ્ન કરવા આગળ ન આવે તેવી સ્થિતિ ઉભી થઇ શકે છે. બીજી બાજુ એલિનોર ને એડવર્ડ નામના શરમાળ યુવાન પ્રત્યે લાગણી છે. એડવર્ડ ને પણ એલિનોર તરફ ખુબ લાગણી છે. પરંતુ બંને ધીમી ગતિ ધરાવતા પ્રેમી પંખીડા મનોમન પ્રેમ કરવા છતાં એકમેક સમક્ષ પોતાનો પ્રેમ વ્યક્ત કરીજ નથી શકતા અને એડવર્ડ ના લગ્ન બીજે થવાની વાતચીત ચાલે છે. 

તે દરમ્યાન કર્નલ બ્રાન્ડન નામના જવાન ડેશવૂડ કુટુંબ ની મદદે આવે છે અને મેરિયન માટે વિલોબીનો પત્તો લગાવે છે. વિલોબી આખરે બહેન એલિનોર પાસે શોક વ્યક્ત કરે છે કે તેમની આર્થિક સ્થિતિ માં તે મેરિયન જોડે પરણી શકે નહિ અને તેથી તેણે પલાયન થઇ અને પોતાને યોગ્ય પત્ની જોડે લગ્ન કરી લીધા છે. મેરિયન આ સમાચાર સાંભળતા બેહોશ બની જાય છે અને પછી તે બીમાર પડે છે. કર્નલ બ્રાન્ડન આ સમયે પણ તેમની ખુબ મદદ કરે છે. આખરે બીમારીમાંથી સાજી થતા મેરિયનને પ્રેમનો સાચો અર્થ સમજાય છે અને એ પણ સમજાય છે કે ધીમો પ્રેમ ક્યારેક ખુબ ગહન હોય છે અને તે અને કર્નલ બ્રાન્ડન લગ્ન કરે છે. આ બાજુ આખરે એડવર્ડ હિમ્મત ભેગી કરીને એલિનોર પાસે તેનો પ્રેમ વ્યક્ત કરે છે અને એલિનોર પોતાની લાગણીઓને વાચા આપે છે અને બંને લગ્ન કરે છે. 

લેખિકા ઓસ્ટીન ની વાર્તામાં એ તો જરૂર સમજાય છે કે કોઈ એક તરફ અતિરેક યોગ્ય નથી. માત્ર બુદ્ધિજીવી જીવન જીવી ન શકાય અને સમય અનુસાર લાગણીઓને પણ વાચા આપવી અને દર્શાવવી જરૂરી છે. તેમજ અતિ સંવેદનશીલ પ્રકૃતિ યોગ્ય નથી અને લાગણીઓ ઉપર સંયમ રાખવો જરૂરી છે. પરંતુ અનેક વાર ટિપ્પણીકારો ને ઓસ્ટીન ની વાર્તાઓ માં તેવું લાગે છે કે ઓસ્ટીનનો પક્ષપાત બુદ્ધિજીવી પ્રકૃતિ તરફ વધારે છે. વાંચીને તમારો અભિપ્રાય જરૂર જણાવશો. 

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